Featured Products

 Trans-beta-Farnesene, P3500-95

Bedoukian is pleased to offer P3500-95 trans-beta-Farnesene 95+%, an aphid alarm pheromone, at a substantially lower price compared to our previous grade P3500-90.  {We plan to also offer E,E-alpha-Farnesene in the near future}. 

Please contact us for samples by email ( This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. ), phone (203-830-4000) or fax (203-830-4010).

See below for some literature references discussing the role of trans-beta-Farnesene (aka e-beta-Farnesene, EBF) in agriculture.

1) Indirect Aphid Control with Low Concentration of EBF

Patent # US 5,308,613 (1994 Banfield, Consep Membranes)

ABSTRACT:  An indirect control of aphids is disclosed, comprising the use of relatively minute concentrations of the pheromone E- β-farnesene, which prevents aphid-caused crop damage by warding off aphids and by attracting natural aphid predators and parasites.

2)   Trans-β-farnesene, Alarm Pheromone of the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

Nature (Impact Factor: 42.35). 01/1973; 241(5385):126-127. DOI: 10.1038/241126b0

By: L.J. Edwards, J.B. Siddall, L.L. Dunham, Peter C. Uden, C.J. Kislow

ABSTRACT: The chemical structure of the repellent odour found in the cornicle secretion of the aphid M. persicae1 has been identified as trans-beta-farnesene.

3)   Aphid alarm pheromone: An overview of current knowledge on biosynthesis and functions

Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Journal; General Review; Online Computer File

By: Vandermoten, Sophie; Mescher, Mark C.; Francis, Frederic; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, Francois J.

Abstract: A review.  Aphids are important agricultural and forest pests that exhibit complex behaviors elicited by pheromonal signals.  The aphid alarm pheromone, of which (E)-β-farnesene is the key (or only) component in most species, plays important roles in mediating interactions among individuals as well as multitrophic interactions among plants, aphids, and aphid natural enemies.  Though many important questions remain to be answered, a large body of research has addressed various aspects of the biol., physiol., and ecol. of aphid alarm pheromones.  Here we review recent advances in our understanding of (1) the identity and compn. of aphid alarm signals; (2) their biosynthesis and prodn.; (3) their effects on conspecifics; (4) their role as cues for other insect species; and (5) their potential application for the management of pest organisms.

4)   Advancement of new prevent and control technologies for aphids in wheat and vegetable

Yingyong Kunchong Xuebao
Journal; General Review

By: Fan, Jia; Liu, Yong; Zeng, Jian-guo; Guo, Mei; Sun, Jing-rui; Cheng, Bi; Chen, Ju-lian

Abstract: A review.  Domestic and international scientific collaboration over recent years has led to important achievements in basic research and control techniques for wheat and vegetable aphids.  Behavioral manipulation technol. has improved through the investigation of the effectiveness of slow released infochems., e. g. aphid alarm pheromone [(E)-β-Farnesene, EBF]], in repelling aphids and attracting their natural enemies.  This research has clarified the correct dose of infochem. oil in the slow releaser and the effective height of infochem. dispensers above host plants, plus the possibility of coordination with the application of EBF and insecticides.  In addn., "push-pull" techniques have been developed that use crop diversity to control aphids.  These unequivocally demonstrate that intercropping, or mixing wheat with other crops, has a valuable control effect on aphids, and allows optimal models to be selected base on the required aphid population decrease, the importance of preserving natural enemies and the Land Equiv. Ratio.  Plant resource insecticidal component screening has found some bioactive components in Macleaya cordata exacts (MCE), e. g. alkaloids, and plant lectins that are highly toxic to wheat aphids.  A formula contg. sanguinarine from MCE and nicotine has been developed that can achieve a mortality among aphid populations of 98.9%; new crop protection technologies have been integrated and demonstrated in wheat and vegetable fields in Henan, Hebei and Shandong provinces, and a socio-economic survey and evaluation system adopted to adjust control methods based on feedback from farmers and technol. transfer agencies.  The final proposed solns. are adapted to local conditions and are therefore more sustainable and efficient, limit the neg. effects of the conventional pesticide use, enhance farmers' income, and ensure food safety.

5)   First GM crop releasing an insect pheromone for defence and evidence for further opportunities from agroecology

Abstracts of Papers, 248th ACS National Meeting & Exposition, San Francisco, CA, United States, August 10-14, 2014
Conference; Meeting Abstract; Computer Optical Disk

By: Pickett, John A.

Abstract: The aphid alarm pheromone (E)-β-farnesene has a neg. impact on aphid pests and increases foraging by antagonistic organisms such as aphid parasitoids.  Genetic engineering in an elite wheat variety has produced stable expression of highly pure (E)-β-farnesene giving excellent results in the lab. against cereal aphids and in increasing foraging by braconid parasitoids of aphids.  Field trial results are currently being analyzed.  New targets for other semiochems., in addn. to pheromones, are studied.  These are chosen when evidence of their effectiveness is available from agroecol. systems exploiting companion cropping to release semiochems. for crop protection and includes a series of defense related isoprenoid oxidn. products.  Induction and primed release of the pheromones and other semiochems. is being developed via natural plant defense elicitors.  The work extends to pathogens and weed control, and even to plant prodn. related traits.

6)   Emission of alarm pheromone by non-preyed aphid colonies

Journal of Applied Entomology

By: Almohamad, R.; Verheggen, F. J.; Francis, F.; Lognay, G.; Haubruge, E.

Abstract: The sesquiterpene (E)-β-farnesene (Eβf) is the primary component of the alarm pheromone of most aphid species.  It is released in response to phys. stress including attack by natural enemies and causes aphids to cease feeding and disperse.  Eβf also acts as a kairomonal cue for aphid natural enemies.  In this study, the authors collected the headspace volatiles released by aphid (Myzus persicae) colonies of different sizes.  Gas chromatog.-mass spectrometry anal. demonstrated the presence of Eβf in the absence of predator attack.  A quadratic relationship was found between the released (E)-β-farnesene amts. and aphid colony size.  Behavioral impact of aphid alarm pheromone towards Episyrphus balteatus female oviposition behavior was also demonstrated.  These results highlight the primary role of the small but continuous release of aphid alarm pheromone in mechanisms of decision-making by aphid predators during their foraging and egg-laying behavior.

Use of Biopesticides

Biopesticide use has more than quadrupled since 2000. Made from naturally occurring substances derived from animals, plants, bacteria, fungi and minerals, biopesticides are used as safer alternatives to controlling pests and are frequently part of Integrated Pest Management plans. Bedoukian Research Inc.’s semiochemical offerings fall under the “Biochemical” classification of biopesticides. In his new blog post, Farmers Shift Towards Virtually Non-Toxic Alternatives for Pest Control, EPA Assistant Administrator Jim Jones discusses the importance of biopesticides and why their increased use is good for people and the environment.

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